Government and Expert Panel Reports
Below is a selection of reports by regulators and expert panels considering whether new GM techniques are covered by existing GM laws.
- Eckerstorfer M, Miklau M and H Gaugitsch. 2014. New Plant Breeding Techniques and Risks Associated with their Application. Environment Agency Austria.
- Austrian Federal Ministry of Health. 2013. New plant breeding techniques. RNA-dependent DNA methylation, Reverse Breeding, Grafting.
- Austrian Federal Ministry of Health. 2012. Cisgenesis. A Report on the Practical Consequences of the Application of Novel Techniques in Plant Breeding.
- New Techniques Working Group. 2012. Report.
- Lusser M, Parisi C, Plan D and E Rodríguez-Cerezo. 2011. New plant breeding techniques State-of-the-art and prospects for commercial development. European Commission Joint Research Centre.
- Lusser M and Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo. 2012. Comparative regulatory approaches for new plant breeding techniques. Workshop Proceedings European Commission Joint Research Centre.
- Netherlands Commission on Genetic Modification. 2006. New techniques in plant biotechnology. COGEM report CGM/061024-02
- German Federal Agency for Consumer Protection and Food Safety. 2012. Position statement of the ZKBS on new plant breeding techniques.
- UK Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment. 2013. ACRE advice: New techniques used in plant breeding.
Australia New Zealand
- Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). 2013. New Plant Breeding Techniques. Workshop report and Summary.
- Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). 2014. New Plant Breeding Techniques. Second Workshop report.
Government agency and expert panel reports considering specific new GM techniques:
- EFSA. 2012. Scientific opinion addressing the safety assessment of plants developed through cisgenesis and intragenesis.
- EFSA. 2012. Scientific Opinion addressing the safety assessment of plants developed using Zinc Finger Nuclease 3 and other Site-Directed Nucleases with similar function.
- Netherlands Committee on Genetic Modification. 2009. Zinc finger on the pulse Developments and implications of zinc finger technology
- German Federal Agency for Consumer Protection and Food Safety. 2012. General position statement of the ZKBS on the use of zinc finger nuclease-1 technique (ZFN-1)
Oligonucleotide-Directed Mutagenesis (ODM)
- UK Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment. 2011. Advice on a plant breeding technique involving oligo-directed mutagenesis.
- Dutch Commission on Genetic Modification (COGEM). 2010. The status of oligonucleotides within the context of site-directed mutagenesis
Decisions by regulators
Few decisions have been made on whether the new GM techniques or their products are covered under national laws. Thus far, decisions have been made on organisms made using zinc finger nuclease-1 (ZFN-1) and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM):
- The USDA has informed Dow Agrosciences that plants made using ZFN-1 techniques are not GMOs under US federal laws:
USDA. 2010. APHIS review as to whether plant varieties created using zinc-finger nucleases techniques for targeted gene deletion are regulated by APHIS. Letter to Dow Agrosciences.
USDA. 2012. APHIS review as to whether plant varieties created using zinc-finger nucleases techniques for targeted gene deletion are regulated by APHIS. Follow-up letter to Dow Agrosciences.
- In New Zealand, a decision by the EPA that ZFN-1 organisms are not covered by the law governing GMOs was quashed by the High Court.
- Agriculture Canada determined in 2013 that two types of ODM canola developed by Cibus are not GMOs. (Documentation pending)
- German Federal Agency for Consumer Protection and Food Safety. 2015. Decision on Cibus RTDS Oilseed Rape.
European Academies Science Advisory Council (EUSAC). New breeding techniques – scientific potential and regulation
CropLife International. Regulatory Oversight of Products Developed Through New Breeding Techniques (NBTs). Position Document.
European Seed Association. New Breeding Techniques. Ensuring Progress and Diversity in Plant Breeding. (July 2012)
European Technology Platform “Plants for the Future”. Position. (September 2012)
Biotechnology Industry Organisation. New Breeding Technologies: Comparing Old and New Ways to Genetically Change Organisms. [No date]. [Note: Clicking on the link automatically downloads ppt]